By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This e-book is the main accomplished reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken by means of nearly 11 thousand humans situated basically in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in line with nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than a hundred and fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar includes the main whole description up to now of the morphology of the language in addition to an intensive therapy of word constitution, observe order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe used to be divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams throughout the Indian elimination of the 1830s. this present day nearly all of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years outdated, and few little ones converse the language. even if extra little ones one of the Mississippi Choctaws study the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is key to retaining the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is significantly very important. Compiled by means of the best scholarly professional at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a realistic advisor to local audio system and an necessary instruction manual for linguists.
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Additional info for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
I/III) (13) Chi-sa-banna-h. ' (14) Chi-sa-yimmi-h. ' (II/III) (15) Chi-am-ahchiba-h. ' (III/II) Verb agreement is discussed in more detail in chapter 9. 3. 1. Equational sentences Equational sentences are those in which the identity of two noun phrases is asserted. These correspond to English sentences with a copula and a predicate nominal. As mentioned above, Choctaw uses zero copulas in the third person in the present tense, as the following examples show: (16) Pam-at holisso'=pisaachi'. ' (17) Holisso '=pisaachi '-mat Pam.
The data in this grammar come from several different speakers of the language, some of whom are now deceased. Other data come from historical texts in the language, where the speaker is unknown. For these reasons it is impossible to recheck every ambiguous form with the original speakerto determine what the representation of the word should be. (c) The third option, that which I will adopt in this work, is to write all phonetically long vowels within the verb stem as long in the orthography. In this respect, the orthography is sub-phonemic for some words for some speakers, but it avoids the misrepresentations of the first option and the impracticality of the second.
However, in contrast to -ba, -akilih shows /h/ when it appears before other suffixes:14 (50) Oklah hachishn-akilih-oosh itti' hash-ahoochich-ahila-h. ' It seems t h a t the contrast between -akilih and -ba needs to be represented as final /h/ versus final @. But in this case, the rule adding glottal stop to word final vowels does not work. Most determiners and complementizers in Choctaw are vowel-final, and so far a s I know none of them show the predicted glottal stop in word final position.