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As a result, energy 26 Air Pollution is lost through the building envelope to the outdoor environment; to counteract this heat loss, heating systems such as a natural gas furnace, heating oil furnace, or electrical baseboards are installed to provide energy to maintain a constant indoor temperature. During cold days, heat wasted by inefficient light bulbs directly supplements the space heating component. Thus, by defining the building envelope as the system boundary, a crude estimate of the annual energy required to maintain a household at a constant temperature during cold days (H) involves subtracting the annual heat energy gains by interior lighting (HL) from annual building envelope heat energy loss during cold days (HBE), such that: ¡ = (4) where (4) is measured in kWh.

6 + 2 + 8). Thermal resistance of a building envelope is key to determining a household’s heat loss or gain. A building envelope is effectively a membrane that separates indoor and outdoor environments whose primary function is to control heat flow through the use of thermal insulation. e. Rvalues). To estimate building envelope heat loss, HDD and CDD are combined with the building envelope thermal resistance and surface area by the following relationship (in kWh): = = μ ¶ (5) where n = total number of different surface areas; A = surface area i of the building envelope area (m2); R = building envelope surface area i thermal resistance (m2 ·K)/W; and HDD = heating degree-days (K·day).

1991). Life Cycle analysis of integral compact fluorescent lamps versus incandescent lamps - energy and emissions. Proceedings of Right Light 1, pp. 411-417. Stockholm, Sweden. Haysom, J. (1998) Comparison of the Model National Energy Code of Canada for Houses 1997 with Energy-Related Requirements in Provincial Building Codes. Climate Change: Buildings Table, National Research Council, Government of Canada [Online]. pdf National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (2009). Response of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy to its Obligations under the Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act.

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