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By William L. Leap

Examines the range of English in American Indian speech groups.

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Example text

There are Episcopal missions in White Rocks and Randelette, an Assembly of God church in Roosevelt, an Indian Baptist church on the White Rocks road, and a Pentecostal church one mile north of the Baptist facility. And there are Mormon churches in all of the non-Indian settlements and in some of the Indian ones. This means that Northern Ute people may travel considerable distances on Sundays and during the week, according to their religious preferences. For example, persons living in White Rocks who are members of the Assembly of God church in Roosevelt will make two thirty-mile trips, from home to church and back, if they attend morning and evening worship services each Sunday.

Features from Ponca grammar that were so evident in the English of older persons were also present in his English and the English of others in his age grouping. However, proficiency in a more standardized English frequently masked the presence of these details in surface structures; when they did emerge, I soon discovered, their presence indicated a shift in the climate of conversation from formal to more congenial grounds. Howard found that, as of 1961, very few young people under age 25 could speak Degiha, and they would reply in English when someone spoke to them in their ancestral language.

Governing officials are elected from all four groups and supervise programs that provide a range of educational and social services for the on-reservation Indian population as a whole. On-reservation residence in this case centers around individual households and homesteads, not around settlements. ) Strictly speaking, Parker lies "on a small island of state-owned land" (Penfield-Jasper 1980: 2), so it is not legally a part of the reservation at all. It is, however, home for persons from each of the four resident tribes, for other Indians and non-Indian employees who work for tribal government, the BIA, or the Indian Health Service, and for Anglo and Mexican-American farmers who have moved into this part of the Colorado River valley in recent years.

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