By William L. Leap
Examines the range of English in American Indian speech groups.
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Show up future, as a time period for westward enlargement, used to be now not used until eventually the 1840s. Its predecessor used to be the Doctrine of Discovery, a criminal culture wherein Europeans and americans laid criminal declare to the land of the indigenous people who they found. within the usa, the British colonists who had lately develop into americans have been competing with the English, French, and Spanish for regulate of lands west of the Mississippi.
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This paintings examines the morphological and syntactic dimensions of ergativity (i. e. , an intransitive topic is handled within the comparable demeanour as a transitive item and another way from the transitive topic) in Coast Tsimshian (Sm'algyax). This language is especially hugely morphologically ergative and the distribution of ergativity is conditioned by means of numerous various factors which are similar via their coding of transitivity.
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There are Episcopal missions in White Rocks and Randelette, an Assembly of God church in Roosevelt, an Indian Baptist church on the White Rocks road, and a Pentecostal church one mile north of the Baptist facility. And there are Mormon churches in all of the non-Indian settlements and in some of the Indian ones. This means that Northern Ute people may travel considerable distances on Sundays and during the week, according to their religious preferences. For example, persons living in White Rocks who are members of the Assembly of God church in Roosevelt will make two thirty-mile trips, from home to church and back, if they attend morning and evening worship services each Sunday.
Features from Ponca grammar that were so evident in the English of older persons were also present in his English and the English of others in his age grouping. However, proficiency in a more standardized English frequently masked the presence of these details in surface structures; when they did emerge, I soon discovered, their presence indicated a shift in the climate of conversation from formal to more congenial grounds. Howard found that, as of 1961, very few young people under age 25 could speak Degiha, and they would reply in English when someone spoke to them in their ancestral language.
Governing officials are elected from all four groups and supervise programs that provide a range of educational and social services for the on-reservation Indian population as a whole. On-reservation residence in this case centers around individual households and homesteads, not around settlements. ) Strictly speaking, Parker lies "on a small island of state-owned land" (Penfield-Jasper 1980: 2), so it is not legally a part of the reservation at all. It is, however, home for persons from each of the four resident tribes, for other Indians and non-Indian employees who work for tribal government, the BIA, or the Indian Health Service, and for Anglo and Mexican-American farmers who have moved into this part of the Colorado River valley in recent years.